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Fish farming is the breeding and rearing of fish in a restricted water environment, with the aim of achieving the highest possible production. Fish are poikilothermic vertebrates that live in water. They move with the aid of fins and breath with gills. Fish have an average life span of 3years although they can live up to five years.


STARTING A FISH FARM
To start a fish farm, certain factors must be considered. These include:
Water availability
Ensure that the area is not stony
The land must have a good water retention capacity
The water retention capacity I was taught, can be checked by digging the ground (about 1 or 1.5m), filling it with water and checking after one or two days if the water had been sucked up or not.
An ideal land for fish farming should retain a large part of the water.If the land did not retain water, then the only option would be to plaster the inside of the pond with clay.
FISH POND


A fish pond is a natural or artificial body of water usually smaller than a lake with fish in it. Fish ponds can be made with plastics (tank) tarpaulin and wood(VAT),concrete or earthen ponds.
The fish size, age and quantity are factors that determine the size and modifications of a fish pond.
Some Common ponds
HATCHING POND
This is the pond where fertilized eggs were kept. , the hatching pond is made with concrete and the inside lined with tiles. The pond is fitted with taps above it to supply water to the pond. On the floor of the pond is a net with stones keeping it in place. There is a pipe that led to the water outlet. This pipe is perforated and covered with net to prevent the larva from flowing out with the water.
PLASTIC POND
it is made with plastic (tank or container) with two pipes, above and by the lower side for injecting and removing water. It is widely used in many places where concrete or earthen ponds would not be convenient.
CONCRETE POND
This is the type of pond used in most Farms. The ponds vary in dimensions. The pond I visited on inspection last week measures:
25ft (Lenght) X 25ft(width) X 4ft5(depth)
The hatching pond measure 4ft (length) X 4ft(width) X 4ft(depth).
The ponds are each half covered with palm fronds on top, to shield off direct sunlight. Each is fitted with an inlet pipe and outlet pipe to regulate water.

EARTHEN POND
People also use earthen ponds made with clay. In earthen ponds, the fish are not fed regularly because the earthen pond resembles their natural habitat. The earthen pond could be up to 5 feet. It is highly practiced by people in the riverine areas.
VAT MOBILE POND
This type of pond is mobile and mainly for small scale fishing practice. It is made with wood/plank and tarpaulin mounted on a solid base above the ground.
The VAT mobile pond requires relatively lower capital to set up than the concrete and plastic ponds.

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